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Scholarly articles opportunistic infections

scholarly articles opportunistic infections Drug-Induced Liver Injury in HIV-Infected Patients with Opportunistic Infections: Causes, Clinical Features and Predictors in Chinese Patients Abstract. Opportunistic Infections in Aids Patients Abstract. OMICS International organises 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events every year across USA, Europe & Asia with. Read Opportunistic infections: treatment and prophylaxis, Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for. Guidelines for Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents Recommendations from CDC, the National.

Opportunistic Infections | List of High Impact Articles.

World Health Organization2003Investing in health: A summary of the findings of the Commission on Macroeconomics and HealthAvailable: 29 March 2007. Available: 29 March 2007.
  • 75. The World Bank (2006) Repositioning nutrition as central to development: A strategy for large-scale action. The World Bank2006Repositioning nutrition as central to development: A strategy for large-scale action.Available: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/NUTRITION/Resources/281846-1131636806329/NutritionStrategy.pdf. Accessed 29 March 2007. Available: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/NUTRITION/Resources/281846-1131636806329/NutritionStrategy.pdf. Accessed 29 March 2007.
  • 76.
  • Diet-induced or inherited obesity in rodents causes NK and T cell suppression and increased TNF-α secretion [56,57,59]. Leptin-induced production of proinflammatory cytokines by macrophages causes neutrophil activation and TH1-derived IFN-γ secretion [60–62]. The obese phenotype in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice is also associated with diminished circulating T cells, reduced T cell responses, and lymphoid atrophy [40]. Although seemingly in a committed stage, macrophages from ob/ob mice have reduced phagocytic activity [40]. Furthermore, the natural ligand of the secretagogue receptor of the pituitary gland, ghrelin, which regulates fat storage and consumption, is directly linked to immune functions by its counteraction of leptin-induced activation of monocytes and T cells [63,64]. This causal relationship was suggested in the US Surgeon General’s Report in 1988 [71]. With more than 842 million chronically malnourished people worldwide [72], we agree with the notion that “…malnutrition may account for a greater population-attributable risk of tuberculosis than HIV infection, and certainly a much more correctable one” [9].

    In the context of what is known as the 10/90 gap (10% of global health research funding is being targeted to health problems that account for 90% of the global disease burden) [73,74], research on infection and malnutrition are highly warranted for scientific, economic, and ethical reasons [75].

    To conquer malnutrition, cost-efficient and practical approaches need to be established.

    Availability of complement components is restricted by malnutrition, thereby affecting the capacity of professional phagocytes to engulf and eliminate pathogens. In mice with experimental PEM, phagocytosis and production of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) and reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNIs) by macrophages is diminished, as is antigen presentation to T cells by dendritic cells [19]. Temporary PEM in mice challenged by experimental peritonitis resulted in impaired immune cell migration and extravasation, as indicated by reduced numbers of CD11b/CD18-positive cells at the site of infection, probably involving lower concentrations of the chemokine MIP-2.

    Peripheral T lymphocytes from infected children with PEM had lower expression of the activation marker CD69, and predominantly showed an intermediate (CD45RAlow/CD45ROlow) rather than a memory phenotype (CD45ROhigh) when compared to healthy donors [20,21].

    These benefits have made arginine an essential constituent of immunonutritive formulas currently in use for critically ill patients.

    PEM is an important health determinant for critically ill patients and increases susceptibility to infections in malnourished elderly patients and patients with anorexia. A large and strictly controlled inpatient study in France pinpoints malnutrition as an independent risk factor for nosocomial infections, which account for 6%–10% of all in-hospital deaths worldwide [17]. Accordingly, nutritive management has to become an elementary part of intensive health care. In summary, nutritional quality and composition are pivotal for anti-infectious immunity.

    (2004) Leptin indirectly activates human neutrophils via induction of TNF-alpha. J Immunol 172: 1809–1814.H. Zarkesh-EsfahaniAG PockleyZ. WuPG HellewellAP Weetman2004Leptin indirectly activates human neutrophils via induction of TNF-alpha.J Immunol17218091814
  • 61. Zarkesh-Esfahani H, Pockley G, Metcalfe RA, Bidlingmaier M, Wu Z, et al. (2001) High-dose leptin activates human leukocytes via receptor expression on monocytes. J Immunol 167: 4593–4599.H. Zarkesh-EsfahaniG. PockleyRA MetcalfeM. BidlingmaierZ. Wu2001High-dose leptin activates human leukocytes via receptor expression on monocytes.J Immunol16745934599
  • 62. Sanchez-Margalet V, Martin-Romero C, Santos-Alvarez J, Goberna R, Najib S, et al.
  • J Clin Endocrinol Metab87758763
  • 44. van Lettow M, van der Meer JW, West CE, van Crevel R, Semba RD (2005) Interleukin-6 and human immunodeficiency virus load, but not plasma leptin concentration, predict anorexia and wasting in adults with pulmonary tuberculosis in Malawi. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90: 4771–4776.M. van LettowJW van der MeerCE WestR. van CrevelRD Semba2005Interleukin-6 and human immunodeficiency virus load, but not plasma leptin concentration, predict anorexia and wasting in adults with pulmonary tuberculosis in Malawi.J Clin Endocrinol Metab9047714776
  • 45. Wieland CW, Florquin S, Chan ED, Leemans JC, Weijer S, et al. (2005) Pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice.
  • Metabolism 49: 1261–1266.S. TanakaF. IsodaY. KiuchiH. IkedaCV Mobbs2000T lymphopenia in genetically obese-diabetic Wistar fatty rats: Effects of body weight reduction on T cells.Metabolism4912611266
  • 58. Nieman DC, Henson DA, Nehlsen-Cannarella SL, Ekkens M, Utter AC, et al. (1999) Influence of obesity on immune function. J Am Diet Assoc 99: 294–299.DC NiemanDA HensonSL Nehlsen-CannarellaM. EkkensAC Utter1999Influence of obesity on immune function.J Am Diet Assoc99294299
  • 59. Yamakawa T, Tanaka S, Yamakawa Y, Kiuchi Y, Isoda F, et al. (1995) Augmented production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in obese mice. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 75: 51–56.
  • Figure 1. Protein Energy Malnutrition Increases Prevalence of Infection, Leading to Energy Loss for the Individual

    On the community level, this burden reduces productivity, including food production, and perpetuates the relentless spiral of further malnutrition, infection, disease, poverty, and socioeconomic and political instability.


    Malnutrition and Infection

    Malnutrition increases risk of infection

    PEM is a common cause of secondary immune deficiency and susceptibility to infection in humans (Table 1). This causal relationship is further supported by animal studies.

    New therapeutic food formulations with balanced contents of macro- and micronutrients, which are ready to use and do not need a clean water supply for their preparation, are important prerequisites for such rapid aid measures. In the past, life-threatening respiratory infections, diarrhea, and malaria were frequent complications requiring short-term inpatient anti-infectious treatment. Under the emergency conditions of the Niger famine in 2005, the measures employed by Médecins Sans Frontières kept child mortality at the rate of non-famine periods. Thus, there is a precedent of effective interventions for acute malnutrition in an emergency to avoid subsequent infections.

    This measure, however, is unlikely to minimize mortality and morbidity due to chronic malnutrition worldwide.

    e., lymph nodes and spleen [6]. This causal chain leads to long-lasting immune defects characterized by leucopenia, decreased CD4 to CD8 ratio and increased numbers of CD4/CD8 double-negative T cells, and, therefore, the appearance of immature T cells in the periphery. Malnourished children suffer in greater proportion from respiratory infections, infectious diarrhea, measles, and malaria, characterized by a protracted course and exacerbated disease. These malnourished children present with diminished functional T cell counts, increased undifferentiated lymphocyte numbers, and depressed serum complement activity (Table 1).

    Reduced antibody responses to polysaccharide antigens of encapsulated bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae exacerbate susceptibility to these pathogens [2,4,18].

    Diseases resulting from overnutrition in industrial societies are of equal concern and similar conditions are already spreading to developing countries. Under- and overnutrition and diet-related chronic diseases represent a critical risk factor for more than half of the world’s diseases and incur hundreds of millions of dollars in public expenditure [5], requiring the immediate attention of biomedical science and public health agencies alike.


    The authors would like to thank Jana Koth and Mary Louise Grossman for expert secretarial assistance, and Maria Podinovskaia, Melanie DeReynal, and Roberto Garcia for the Russian, French, and Spanish translations, respectively, of the abstract.

    This tuberculosis epidemic plummeted once the German blockade of Denmark was established and food became available to the Danish population again, but the epidemic continued in other countries [9].

    Five Key Papers on the Link Between Malnutrition, Immunity, and Infection

    Ing et al., 2000 [28] Employing an animal model for helminth infection, this study shows that malnutrition interferes with protective immunity.

    Cegielski et al., 2004 [9] This paper summarizes, for the first time, clear evidence of the link between malnutrition and tuberculosis.

    Zarkesh-Esfahani et al., 2004 [60] The authors show the link between leptin-induced TNF- and neutrophil activation.


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