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Scholarly articles opportunistic infections

scholarly articles opportunistic infections Drug-Induced Liver Injury in HIV-Infected Patients with Opportunistic Infections: Causes, Clinical Features and Predictors in Chinese Patients Abstract. Opportunistic Infections in Aids Patients Abstract. OMICS International organises 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events every year across USA, Europe & Asia with. Read Opportunistic infections: treatment and prophylaxis, Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for. Guidelines for Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents Recommendations from CDC, the National.

Opportunistic Infections | List of High Impact Articles.

World Health Organization2003Investing in health: A summary of the findings of the Commission on Macroeconomics and HealthAvailable: 29 March 2007. Available: 29 March 2007.
  • 75. The World Bank (2006) Repositioning nutrition as central to development: A strategy for large-scale action. The World Bank2006Repositioning nutrition as central to development: A strategy for large-scale action.Available: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/NUTRITION/Resources/281846-1131636806329/NutritionStrategy.pdf. Accessed 29 March 2007. Available: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/NUTRITION/Resources/281846-1131636806329/NutritionStrategy.pdf. Accessed 29 March 2007.
  • 76.
  • Diet-induced or inherited obesity in rodents causes NK and T cell suppression and increased TNF-α secretion [56,57,59]. Leptin-induced production of proinflammatory cytokines by macrophages causes neutrophil activation and TH1-derived IFN-γ secretion [60–62]. The obese phenotype in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice is also associated with diminished circulating T cells, reduced T cell responses, and lymphoid atrophy [40]. Although seemingly in a committed stage, macrophages from ob/ob mice have reduced phagocytic activity [40]. Furthermore, the natural ligand of the secretagogue receptor of the pituitary gland, ghrelin, which regulates fat storage and consumption, is directly linked to immune functions by its counteraction of leptin-induced activation of monocytes and T cells [63,64]. This causal relationship was suggested in the US Surgeon General’s Report in 1988 [71]. With more than 842 million chronically malnourished people worldwide [72], we agree with the notion that “…malnutrition may account for a greater population-attributable risk of tuberculosis than HIV infection, and certainly a much more correctable one” [9].

    In the context of what is known as the 10/90 gap (10% of global health research funding is being targeted to health problems that account for 90% of the global disease burden) [73,74], research on infection and malnutrition are highly warranted for scientific, economic, and ethical reasons [75].

    To conquer malnutrition, cost-efficient and practical approaches need to be established.

    Availability of complement components is restricted by malnutrition, thereby affecting the capacity of professional phagocytes to engulf and eliminate pathogens. In mice with experimental PEM, phagocytosis and production of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) and reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNIs) by macrophages is diminished, as is antigen presentation to T cells by dendritic cells [19]. Temporary PEM in mice challenged by experimental peritonitis resulted in impaired immune cell migration and extravasation, as indicated by reduced numbers of CD11b/CD18-positive cells at the site of infection, probably involving lower concentrations of the chemokine MIP-2.

    Peripheral T lymphocytes from infected children with PEM had lower expression of the activation marker CD69, and predominantly showed an intermediate (CD45RAlow/CD45ROlow) rather than a memory phenotype (CD45ROhigh) when compared to healthy donors [20,21].

    These benefits have made arginine an essential constituent of immunonutritive formulas currently in use for critically ill patients.

    PEM is an important health determinant for critically ill patients and increases susceptibility to infections in malnourished elderly patients and patients with anorexia. A large and strictly controlled inpatient study in France pinpoints malnutrition as an independent risk factor for nosocomial infections, which account for 6%–10% of all in-hospital deaths worldwide [17]. Accordingly, nutritive management has to become an elementary part of intensive health care. In summary, nutritional quality and composition are pivotal for anti-infectious immunity.

    (2004) Leptin indirectly activates human neutrophils via induction of TNF-alpha. J Immunol 172: 1809–1814.H. Zarkesh-EsfahaniAG PockleyZ. WuPG HellewellAP Weetman2004Leptin indirectly activates human neutrophils via induction of TNF-alpha.J Immunol17218091814
  • 61. Zarkesh-Esfahani H, Pockley G, Metcalfe RA, Bidlingmaier M, Wu Z, et al. (2001) High-dose leptin activates human leukocytes via receptor expression on monocytes. J Immunol 167: 4593–4599.H. Zarkesh-EsfahaniG. PockleyRA MetcalfeM. BidlingmaierZ. Wu2001High-dose leptin activates human leukocytes via receptor expression on monocytes.J Immunol16745934599
  • 62. Sanchez-Margalet V, Martin-Romero C, Santos-Alvarez J, Goberna R, Najib S, et al.
  • J Clin Endocrinol Metab87758763
  • 44. van Lettow M, van der Meer JW, West CE, van Crevel R, Semba RD (2005) Interleukin-6 and human immunodeficiency virus load, but not plasma leptin concentration, predict anorexia and wasting in adults with pulmonary tuberculosis in Malawi. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90: 4771–4776.M. van LettowJW van der MeerCE WestR. van CrevelRD Semba2005Interleukin-6 and human immunodeficiency virus load, but not plasma leptin concentration, predict anorexia and wasting in adults with pulmonary tuberculosis in Malawi.J Clin Endocrinol Metab9047714776
  • 45. Wieland CW, Florquin S, Chan ED, Leemans JC, Weijer S, et al. (2005) Pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice.
  • Metabolism 49: 1261–1266.S. TanakaF. IsodaY. KiuchiH. IkedaCV Mobbs2000T lymphopenia in genetically obese-diabetic Wistar fatty rats: Effects of body weight reduction on T cells.Metabolism4912611266
  • 58. Nieman DC, Henson DA, Nehlsen-Cannarella SL, Ekkens M, Utter AC, et al. (1999) Influence of obesity on immune function. J Am Diet Assoc 99: 294–299.DC NiemanDA HensonSL Nehlsen-CannarellaM. EkkensAC Utter1999Influence of obesity on immune function.J Am Diet Assoc99294299
  • 59. Yamakawa T, Tanaka S, Yamakawa Y, Kiuchi Y, Isoda F, et al. (1995) Augmented production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in obese mice. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 75: 51–56.
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