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Public health care essay

public health care essay Working in the field emerges the designs of qualitative evaluation: ethnography approach, Participant-Observation, Observations-non-participants, collecting data, Interviewing-conversational, Narratives-story-telling-transcripts, Constructivism orientation, documentation and analysing and interpreting data. The qualitative evaluator is to try to find meaning and understanding of the phenomena. Finding themes, patterns, concepts, Insights, and comparisons in the data collected (Patton, 1990).

Public health practice comprises a wide-range of health care activities such as community development, social phenomena, biomedical-epidemiological, cultural history, psychological, political and ideological issues and problems. According to Patton (1990) "clarifying the purpose of study will determine what evaluation approaches are appropriate to apply. Qualitative methods are compatible in many fields of disciplines in particular all areas mention above.

Three of its super output areas, Dallow, Biscot and Northwell wards, are in the top 10% of the most deprived for the country 2007 Indices of Multiple Deprivation.

The annual public health report revealed Luton to have a worse health status and shorter life expectancy than the England average (2009 annual public health report) . HI include childhood obesity, cardiovascular disease (‘CVD’), diabetes, tooth decay and breastfeeding (‘BF’). Infant mortality and low birth weight are higher compared to the England average . 2009 annual public health report) . Inequalities in child health are a serious concern, particularly childhood obesity, which is also high, at 12.7% compared to national average of 9.6% (2009) .

Giving children the best start in life, is one of the public service agreement (‘PSA’) targets. The department of health (‘DOH’), also set this out in ‘A programme for Action’, where supporting families, mothers and children is identified to help break the "inter-generational cycle of HI" .

In addition, White British women in deprived areas are least likely to initiate and sustain BF, particularly young mothers and teenagers with low income and lower educational attainment . However, peer influence from ethnic communities is shown to have positive effects on BF.

Although antenatal care guidelines by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (‘NICE’) suggest a universal approach, they also recommend targeted action towards those less likely to BF .

Exclusive BF until six months is the national recommendation. It is supported by WHO, UNICEF UK and NICE and is included in DOH policies such as the ‘Infant feeding recommendations’ . This is based on the acquired health benefits to mother and child . BF also contributes to targets of the PSA, such as reducing infant mortality rates and preventable infections and improving childhood obesity rates .

The geographical region assigned to the group was Luton. A key priority and on-going objective for Luton’s National Health Service (‘NHS’) and the Luton Borough Council (‘LBC’) has been to reduce HI in Luton .

The purpose of this project was to identify a health issue and target population and develop a PHN intervention to improve health outcomes, following a comprehensive needs assessment and review of UK policies.

Research for the needs assessment was conducted by defining Luton’s population. Information from the Office for National Statistics and Association of Public Health Observatories identified Luton as an ethnically diverse town with a population estimate of 194300. 35% of the population is of Black and Ethnic Minorities (‘BME’), mainly Pakistani, Bangladeshi and Afro-Caribbean communities and ONS.

There is also lack of targeted antenatal and postnatal education, and support in Luton, which is a recommendation of the UNICEF UK Baby Friendly initiative and NICE guidelines .

The priority wards initially targeted for the intervention were Dallow and Biscot, as their BF rates were the lowest in Luton due to the level of deprivation . Luton’s BF IR currently stands at 63.2% compared to the England average of 72.5%. However, prevalence at 6-8 weeks is 58.2%, which is above the national average of 48.2% .

The ‘Fair society, healthy lives - The Marmot review’, states that disadvantage starts before birth, leading to a cycle of deprivation. This is proven by the highest rates of poor health and hospital admission for the under 19 population in the highly deprived areas of Luton .

Efforts to reduce HI should commence early to help break links between early disadvantage and poor outcomes throughout childhood.

An improved BF intervention is therefore warranted to achieve the PSA target of improved initiation and sustained BF at six to eight weeks, with a 2% year on year increase . .

Advocating BF encounters many challenges in the implementation stage. Common problems stem from political, cultural and individual issues .

Inappropriate promotion of infant formula despite the ‘international code of marketing for BM substitutes’ can have detrimental effects on BF promotion, causing confusion to the women .

Returning to work strongly influences the decision to BF as these variables may appear mutually exclusive and lack of support from employers may deter mothers from breastfeeding despite the BF intervention .

Poor BF initiation may occur following problematic labour, which may impact on ability to BF and discouraged mothers may decide to formula-feed.


  1. Lapegenepe

    Estimated 250, 000 deaths per year attributed to medical errors. Maybe we should have a public health approach to reduce that!

  2. Mutuwuloruwoj

    Thanks for sharing, Megan! One note: is an expert in public health, not a scientist.

  3. Mixamix

    Of course I have a in writing to present to Congress.

  4. Qohoboj

    Just watch video, he"s got a clear understanding of the public health economics, it isn"t hard to grasp.

  5. Koqakobono

    The best thing that ad-driven big companies could do is run a bunch of ads that deliver important public health messages

  6. Qaqitebadoqico

    The Mo Public Health Laboratory tested 504 private drinking water samples since May 1. Call 573-751-3334 for your free kit today

  7. Piqufehukayol

    Today"s featured Fellow is Kathleen Myer, Public Health Nutrition Advisor for "s Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance:

  8. Joticupeduy

    No vote for Dr. Tedros Adhanom. he is nether a medical nor public health person

  9. Bogaputo

    V. Calloway. You need 8 hrs of sleep a night. Good personal and public health.

  10. Vinuzom

    Law Enforcement Violence as a Public Health Issue

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